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Conservation of Farm Animal Genetic Resources by NAGRC&DB

Refers to All human activities including strategies, plans, policies and actions to ensure:

✭ that the diversity of farm animal genetic resources is being maintained

✭ to contribute to food and agricultural production and productivity  now and in the future

Why conserve

  • 20-40% of reported breeds are at a risk of extinction, the situation could be worse due to inadequate data

Causes

  • The focus on a few high-output breeds; 
the indiscriminate cross-breeding with exotic breeds
  • Inadequate policies, leading to the marginalization of relevant stakeholders, such as pastoralists,
  • socio-economic changes leading to transformation of production systems and livelihoods,
  • and disasters (natural and human induced); and 

  • Transformation of traditional systems into external input-oriented systems, often by using exotic animal genetic resources that displace local breeds.

How NAGRC&DB is conserving Animal Genetic Resources?

  • In situ Conservation of Farm Animal Genetic Diversity:
    • Maintenance of live animal breeding populations including those we keep in their natural environment

(where it was developed or is normally found)

    • It also looks at husbandry activities that are undertaken to ensure the continued contribution of these resources to sustainable food and agricultural production, now and in the future.

How?

  • Ex situ Conservation of Farm Animal Genetic Diversity:
  • conservation of genetic material within living animals and  out of the environment in which it was developed (Ex situ in vivo),
    • or external to the living animal in an artificial environment, usually under very cold conditions
  • cryo-conservation of semen, oocytes, embryos, cells or tissues (Ex situ in vitro).
  • Genebank: the physical location for conservation of collections of well identified genetic material in the form of live animals, in situ or ex situ (as conservation herds or flocks), or ex situ stored semen, oocytes, embryos, cells or tissues